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Kazunobu Hayakawa
Japan External Trade Organization
89Publications
11H-index
660Citations
Publications 89
Newest
#2Kazunobu HayakawaH-Index: 11
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Tariff pass-through is a vital issue for considering who and to what extent the trade liberalization benefits. This paper empirically examines the tariff pass-through in wholesaling by employing the wholesale firm-level data in Japan. We found that importing wholesalers significantly raised their margin ratio (i.e., (sales – procurements) / sales) against tariff reduction. On average, a 1% reduction of tariffs raised the margin ratio by around 0.25 percentage point. This rise is equivalent to ...
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This paper proposes a method of quantifying the additional fixed cost to exporters of taking advantage of regional trade agreements (RTAs). Such additional fixed costs can be measured by the ratio of fixed costs resulting from preference utilization to those associated with non-preferential export activities, or "fixed cost ratio (FCR)." Our method is built on a model of international trade where heterogeneous exporters decide what tariff schemes to use. By applying our method to Japan's imports...
#1Kazunobu HayakawaH-Index: 11
#2Nuttawut Laksanapanyakul (Thailand Development Research Institute)H-Index: 1
Last.Taiyo Yoshimi (Chu-Dai: Chuo University)H-Index: 3
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#1Kazunobu HayakawaH-Index: 11
#2Shujiro Urata (Waseda University)H-Index: 21
Last.Taiyo Yoshimi (Chu-Dai: Chuo University)H-Index: 3
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Mega‐regional trade agreements (RTAs) are likely to overlap with other RTAs. When such overlaps occur, firms must choose the tariff rates from multiple RTAs. By employing data on Japan’s imports by tariff schemes, we investigate how RTA tariff rates affect firms’ decisions on tariff schemes when multiple RTAs exist. Our finding is that RTA utilization rates are higher when tariff rates for that RTA are lower (own effect) and tariff rates for alternative RTAs are higher (cross effect). We also fo...
#1Kazunobu HayakawaH-Index: 11
#2Ikumo IsonoH-Index: 3
Last.Satoru KumagaiH-Index: 3
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In this paper, we empirically examine the effects of domestic transportation costs on product prices in an archipelagic country, namely, Indonesia. Specifically, we investigate the province-level price of televisions. Our analysis reveals that maritime transportation is more costly than land transportation. For example, a 1% increase in distance in maritime and land transportation increases a product price by 0.08% and 0.02%, respectively. This result implies that the geographical concentration ...
#1Kazunobu HayakawaH-Index: 11
#2Fukunari Kimura (Keio: Keio University)H-Index: 21
Last.Nuttawut Laksanapanyakul (Thailand Development Research Institute)H-Index: 1
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The preference utilization ratio, i.e., the share of preferential imports out of total imports, has been a popular indicator for measuring the usage of preferential tariffs vis-a-vis tariffs on a most-favored-nation basis. A crucial shortcoming of this measure is the data requirements, particularly for data on imports classified by tariff schemes, which are not available in most countries. This study proposes another measure for preference utilization, termed the “tariff exemption ratio.” This m...
#1Kazunobu HayakawaH-Index: 11
#2Nuttawut Laksanapanyakul (Thailand Development Research Institute)H-Index: 1
Last.Shujiro Urata (Waseda University)H-Index: 21
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This paper examines the impact of free trade agreement (FTA) use on import prices. For this analysis, it employs establishment-level import data with information on tariff schemes, that is, the FTA and most-favored-nation schemes used for importing. Unlike previous studies, this paper estimates the effects of FTA use on prices by controlling for differences in importing-firm characteristics. There are three main findings. First, the effect of FTA use is overestimated when not controlling for imp...
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