Kathy Carlstead
Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute
Publications 28
#1Janine L. BrownH-Index: 47
#2Kathy CarlsteadH-Index: 21
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A recent large-scale welfare study in North America involving 106 Asian (Elephas maximus) and 131 African (Loxodonta africana) elephants at 64 accredited facilities identified links (i.e., risk factors) between zoo environmental factors and a number of welfare outcomes (stereotypic behavior, ovarian acyclicity, hyperprolactinemia, walking and recumbence, body condition, health status, serum cortisol). For this population of elephants, we used the same epidemiological methods to examine associati...
#1Katie L. EdwardsH-Index: 6
#2Michele MillerH-Index: 14
Last.Janine L. BrownH-Index: 47
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Elephants experience a number of health issues that can contribute to their well-being and survival. In managed populations, housing conditions and management practices can influence individual health, so potential risk factors associated with morbidity or mortality should be identified to ensure the best possible standards of care. The goal of this study was to determine if the number of clinical events experienced could be a useful welfare indicator in zoo elephants, and to determine factors a...
3 CitationsSource
#1Janine L. Brown (SCBI: Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute)H-Index: 47
#2Jessica D. Bray (NCSU: North Carolina State University)
Last.Kimberly Ange-van Heugten (NCSU: North Carolina State University)H-Index: 3
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Abstract Identifying links between environmental, social, management, and health factors as they relate to physiological stress in captive elephants is crucial for the improvement of welfare and husbandry practices in North American zoos. Studies have examined the effects of short-term and chronic elevations in glucocorticoids in small groups of elephants, but few have examined adrenal activity on a large scale. This study evaluated 106 Asian (Elephas maximus) and 131 African (Loxodonta africana...
#1Kathy CarlsteadH-Index: 21
#2Stephen Paris (SCBI: Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute)H-Index: 2
Last.Janine L. Brown (SCBI: Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute)H-Index: 47
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Abstract Relationships between animals and their human caretakers can have profound impacts on animal welfare in farms, laboratories and zoos, while human attitudes are important predictors of caretaker behavior towards livestock. In this study, we examined the impact of keeper attitudes about working with elephants on Keeper-Elephant Relationships (KERs) and Bonds (KEBs), and found evidence for reciprocity and welfare benefits to both parties. As part of a large, multi-institutional study of zo...
6 CitationsSource
#1Natalia A. Prado-Oviedo (GMU: George Mason University)H-Index: 3
#2Mary K. Bonaparte-Saller (UC Davis: University of California, Davis)H-Index: 3
Last.Janine L. Brown (SCBI: Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute)H-Index: 47
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This study quantified social life events hypothesized to affect the welfare of zoo African and Asian elephants, focusing on animals that were part of a large multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional elephant welfare study in North America. Age was calculated based on recorded birth dates and an age-based account of life event data for each elephant was compiled. These event histories included facility transfers, births and deaths of offspring, and births and deaths of non-offspring herd mates. Ea...
26 CitationsSource
#1Brian J. Greco (UC Davis: University of California, Davis)H-Index: 4
#2Cheryl L. MeehanH-Index: 14
Last.Joy A. Mench (UC Davis: University of California, Davis)H-Index: 39
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The management of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants in zoos involves a range of practices including feeding, exercise, training, and environmental enrichment. These practices are necessary to meet the elephants’ nutritional, healthcare, and husbandry needs. However, these practices are not standardized, resulting in likely variation among zoos as well as differences in the way they are applied to individual elephants within a zoo. To characterize elephant managem...
17 CitationsSource
#1Janine L. Brown (SCBI: Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute)H-Index: 47
#2Stephen Paris (SCBI: Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute)H-Index: 2
Last.Kathy CarlsteadH-Index: 21
view all 7 authors...
As part of a multi-institutional study of zoo elephant welfare, we evaluated female elephants managed by zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums and applied epidemiological methods to determine what factors in the zoo environment are associated with reproductive problems, including ovarian acyclicity and hyperprolactinemia. Bi-weekly blood samples were collected from 95 African (Loxodonta africana) and 75 Asian (Elephas maximus) (8–55 years of age) elephants over a 12-month peri...
27 CitationsSource
#1Cheryl L. MeehanH-Index: 14
#2Joy A. Mench (UC Davis: University of California, Davis)H-Index: 39
Last.Jennifer N. HoganH-Index: 7
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Concerns about animal welfare increasingly shape people’s views about the acceptability of keeping animals for food production, biomedical research, and in zoos. The field of animal welfare science has developed over the past 50 years as a method of investigating these concerns via research that assesses how living in human-controlled environments influences the behavior, health and affective states of animals. Initially, animal welfare research focused on animals in agricultural settings, but t...
21 CitationsSource
#1Courtney L. Daigle (MSU: Michigan State University)H-Index: 9
#2Janine L. Brown (SCBI: Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute)H-Index: 47
Last.Richard J. Snider (MSU: Michigan State University)H-Index: 7
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A breeding moratorium enacted in the early 1980s for African lions Panthera leo in North American zoos was lifted in 1998. However, post-moratorium reproduction was poorer than expected from 1999 to 2005. In 2007, therefore, a multi-institutional survey was conducted to provide a general overview of the Species Survival Plan® (SSP) African lion population ♀♀, and assess relationships between social, management, husbandry and environmental conditions, and reproductive activity. Females (n = 40) w...
6 CitationsSource
2 CitationsSource