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Johannes G. Ramaekers
Maastricht University
241Publications
41H-index
5,887Citations
Publications 248
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Abstract Each year, synthetic drugs are occurring in high numbers in the illicit drug market. But data on their pharmacology and toxicology are scarcely available. Therefore, a pilot study was performed to evaluate excretion of 4-fluoroamphetamine (4FA) in humans and identify metabolites in urine. Twelve subjects ingested 100 mg and five 150 mg 4-FA in a bitter lemon drink. Urine samples were scheduled at baseline and 4 times during the following 12 h and analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass s...
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Standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP) has been accepted as a reliable parameter for measuring driving impairment due to lowered vigilance caused by sleepiness or the use of sedating drugs. Recently, lane drifts were proposed as an additional outcome measure quantifying momentary lapses of attention. The purpose of this study was to validate lane drifts as outcome measure of driver impairment in a large data pool from two independent research centers. Data from 11 placebo-controlled studi...
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Rationale 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine is a psychotropic substance found in various plant and animal species and is synthetically produced. 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine is used in naturalistic settings for spiritual exploration, recreation, or to address negative affect and mood problems. However, scientific knowledge on the effects of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine in humans is scarce.
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Objective: The aim of this study is to compare actual driving performance and skills related to driving of patients using benzodiazepine anxiolytics or hypnotics for at least 6 months to that of healthy controls. Methods: Participants were 44 long-term users of benzodiazepine and benzodiazepine-related anxiolytics (n = 12) and hypnotics (n = 32) and 65 matched healthy controls. Performance was assessed using an on-the-road driving test measuring standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP, in c...
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#1Thomas R. Arkell (USYD: University of Sydney)H-Index: 1
#2Richard C. Kevin (USYD: University of Sydney)H-Index: 11
Last.Iain S. McGregor (USYD: University of Sydney)H-Index: 67
view all 7 authors...
Point-of-collection testing (POCT) for Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in oral fluid is increasingly used to detect driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC). However, previous studies have questioned the reliability and accuracy of two commonly used POCT devices, the Securetec DrugWipe® 5s (DW5s) and Drager DrugTest® 5000 (DT5000). In the current placebo controlled, double-blind, crossover study we used LC-MS/MS to accurately quantify cannabinoid concentrations in the oral fluid of fourteen...
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#1Thomas R. Arkell (USYD: University of Sydney)H-Index: 1
#2Nicholas Lintzeris (USYD: University of Sydney)H-Index: 30
Last.Iain S. McGregor (USYD: University of Sydney)H-Index: 67
view all 8 authors...
Background The main psychoactive component of cannabis, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), can impair driving performance. Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-intoxicating cannabis component, is thought to mitigate certain adverse effects of THC. It is possible then that cannabis containing equivalent CBD and THC will differentially affect driving and cognition relative to THC-dominant cannabis.
5 CitationsSource
#1M. V. Uthaug (UM: Maastricht University)H-Index: 2
#2R. LancelottaH-Index: 1
Last.Johannes G. Ramaekers (UM: Maastricht University)H-Index: 41
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Background 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (hereinafter referred to as 5-MeO-DMT) is a psychedelic substance found in the secretion from the parotoid glands of the Bufo alvarius toad. Inhalation of vapor from toad secretion containing 5-MeO-DMT has become popular in naturalistic settings as a treatment of mental health problems or as a means for spiritual exploration. However, knowledge of the effects of 5-MeO-DMT in humans is limited.
2 CitationsSource
#1Vincent T. MensenH-Index: 1
#2Annabel Vreeker (UU: Utrecht University)H-Index: 8
Last.Tibor M. Brunt (UvA: University of Amsterdam)H-Index: 19
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Background Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are a class of new psychoactive substances that have been rapidly evolving around the world throughout recent years. Many different synthetic cannabinoid analogues are on the consumer market and sold under misleading names, like “spice” or “incense.” A limited number of studies have reported serious health effects associated with SC use. In this study, we compared clinical and subclinical psychopathological symptoms associated with SC use and natural canna...
1 CitationsSource
#1Natasha L. Mason (UM: Maastricht University)H-Index: 3
#2Eef L. Theunissen (UM: Maastricht University)H-Index: 21
Last.Johannes G. Ramaekers (UM: Maastricht University)H-Index: 41
view all 8 authors...
Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in the world. However due to a changing legal landscape, and rising interest in therapeutic utility, there is an increasing trend in (long-term) use and possibly, cannabis impairment. Importantly, a growing body of evidence suggests regular cannabis users develop tolerance to the impairing, as well as the rewarding, effects of the drug. However, the neuroadaptations that may underlie cannabis tolerance remain unclear. Therefore, this double-blind, ...
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