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Edze R. Westra
University of Exeter
57Publications
23H-index
5,052Citations
Publications 57
Newest
#1Ellinor Opsal Alseth (University of Exeter)
#2Elizabeth Pursey (University of Exeter)H-Index: 1
Last.Edze R. Westra (University of Exeter)H-Index: 23
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About half of all bacteria carry genes for CRISPR–Cas adaptive immune systems1, which provide immunological memory by inserting short DNA sequences from phage and other parasitic DNA elements into CRISPR loci on the host genome2. Whereas CRISPR loci evolve rapidly in natural environments3,4, bacterial species typically evolve phage resistance by the mutation or loss of phage receptors under laboratory conditions5,6. Here we report how this discrepancy may in part be explained by differences in t...
#1Jack Common (University of Exeter)H-Index: 2
#2David Walker-Sünderhauf (University of Exeter)
Last.Edze R. Westra (University of Exeter)H-Index: 23
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Diversity in host resistance often associates with reduced pathogen spread. This may result from limitation of pathogen evolution, and reduced pathogen reproduction due to the dilution of focal hosts. Theory and experiments on bacteria-phage interactions have shown that genetic diversity of the bacterial adaptive immune system can limit phage evolution to overcome resistance. Here we explore how immune diversity impacts the spread of phage when they can overcome a resistance allele, and whether ...
#1Tatiana Dimitriu (University of Exeter)H-Index: 4
#2Ben Ashby (University of Bath)H-Index: 10
Last.Edze R. Westra (University of Exeter)H-Index: 23
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CRISPR-Cas systems provide sequence-specific immunity against selfish genetic elements in prokaryotes. Now, two studies show that transposon-encoded variants can guide sequence-specific transposition. These findings have important practical implications but also raise questions of why and how this strategy would benefit transposons.
#1Bridget N.J. Watson (University of Otago)H-Index: 4
#2Reuben B. Vercoe (University of Otago)H-Index: 2
Last.Peter C. Fineran (University of Otago)H-Index: 35
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Type I CRISPR-Cas systems are the most abundant and widespread adaptive immune systems of bacteria and can greatly enhance bacterial survival in the face of temperate phage infection. However, it is less clear how these systems protect against virulent phages. Here we experimentally show that type I CRISPR immunity of Pectobacterium atrosepticum leads to rapid suppression of two unrelated virulent phages, ΦTE and ΦM1. However, unlike the case where bacteria are infected with temperate phages, th...
#1Andrew Varble (Rockefeller University)H-Index: 2
#2Sean Meaden (University of Exeter)H-Index: 8
Last.Luciano A. Marraffini (Rockefeller University)H-Index: 35
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CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) loci and their associated (cas) genes encode an adaptive immune system that protects prokaryotes from viral1 and plasmid2 invaders. Following viral (phage) infection, a small fraction of the prokaryotic cells are able to integrate a small sequence of the invader’s genome into the CRISPR array1. These sequences, known as spacers, are transcribed and processed into small CRISPR RNA guides3–5 that associate with Cas nucleases to spe...
#1Anne Chevallereau (University of Exeter)H-Index: 5
#2Sean Meaden (University of Exeter)H-Index: 8
Last.Clare Rollie (University of Exeter)H-Index: 1
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CRISPR-Cas immune systems are present in around half of bacterial genomes. Given the specificity and adaptability of this immune mechanism, it is perhaps surprising that they are not more widesprea...
#1Edze R. Westra (University of Exeter)H-Index: 23
#2Stineke van Houte (University of Exeter)H-Index: 12
Last.Rachel J. Whitaker (UIUC: University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign)H-Index: 23
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#1Hélène Chabas (University of Montpellier)H-Index: 5
#2Antoine Nicot (University of Montpellier)H-Index: 5
Last.Sylvain Gandon (University of Montpellier)H-Index: 42
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The durability of host resistance is challenged by the ability of pathogens to escape the defence of their hosts. Understanding the variability in the durability of host resistance is of paramount ...
#1Jack Common (University of Exeter)H-Index: 2
#2Daniel Morley (University of Exeter)H-Index: 2
Last.Stineke van Houte (University of Exeter)H-Index: 12
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CRISPR-Cas is an adaptive prokaryotic immune system that prevents phage infection. By incorporating phage-derived ‘spacer’ sequences into CRISPR loci on the host genome, future infections from the ...
#1Jack Common (University of Exeter)H-Index: 2
#2Edze R. Westra (University of Exeter)H-Index: 23
ABSTRACTPopulation bottlenecks often cause strong reductions in genetic diversity and alter population structure. In the context of host-parasite interactions, bottlenecks could in theory benefit either the host or the pathogen. We predicted that bottlenecking of bacterial populations that evolve CRISPR immunity against bacteriophages (phage) would benefit the pathogen, because CRISPR spacer diversity can rapidly drive phages extinct. To test this, we bottlenecked populations of bacteria and pha...
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