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Michael R. Rampino
Goddard Institute for Space Studies
136Publications
38H-index
5,101Citations
Publications 140
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Abstract How large must an extraterrestrial impact be to cause a peak episode of increased extinctions of life? Impact energies ≥ 3 × 107 Mt TNT (associated with terrestrial impact craters with final diameters ≥ 100 km) seem to be required to generate significant widespread climatic effects from sub-micron dust and soot in the atmosphere, leading to a distinct extinction episode (≥ 15% extinction of marine genera). Impacts creating craters smaller than ∼100 km in final diameter (in the 106 to 10...
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Abstract The most severe mass extinction in the Phanerozoic in the latest Permian Period (251.9 Ma), has been attributed to environmental effects related to the massive coeval Siberian flood-basalt eruptions. A potential causal link between the eruptions and the marine extinctions arises from lethal global warming from greenhouse-gas emissions and the resulting development of widespread hypoxic conditions in the warm oceans. The 331-m Gartnerkofel-1 core (Carnic Alps, Austria) penetrated the Per...
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Abstract A latest Permian timeline (251.9 Ma) can be constructed from the perspectives of: a global nickel spike attributed to emissions from the coeval Siberian flood-basalt eruptions, the correlative end-Permian marine mass extinction (EPME), a transition from reversed to normal paleomagnetism, and a negative anomaly in δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg. In a number of marine and non-marine localities, this timeline is also correlated (to within ≤30 ky) with palynological evidence for the latest Permian de...
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#1Michael R. Rampino (GISS: Goddard Institute for Space Studies)H-Index: 38
#2Shu-zhong Shen (NU: Nanjing University)H-Index: 32
ABSTRACTThe modern loss of species diversity has been labelled the ‘sixth extinction’ subsequent to the five major mass extinctions widely recognised in the Phanerozoic geologic record – the end-Or...
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#1Michael R. RampinoH-Index: 38
#2Ken CaldeiraH-Index: 69
Last.Andreas ProkophH-Index: 21
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2 CitationsSource
#1Michael Brookfield (UMass: University of Massachusetts Amherst)H-Index: 8
#2Alan Stebbins (UMass: University of Massachusetts Amherst)H-Index: 6
Last.Robyn E. Hannigan (UMass: University of Massachusetts Amherst)H-Index: 2
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Abstract We performed analyses of Corg, Norg, δ13C org, and δ15N org from the non-marine Permian-Triassic boundary section at Carlton Heights in the Karoo Basin, South Africa. The Carlton Heights section is thus far unique in the Karoo in containing the Permian-Triassic palynological boundary between the Upper Permian Klausipollenites schaubergeri Zone and the Lower Triassic Kraeuselisporites-Lunatisporites Zone, separated by a 1-m thick “fungal event” zone, marked by abundant fungal cell remain...
1 CitationsSource
#1Michael R. Rampino (NYU: New York University)H-Index: 38
#2Ken Caldeira (CIS: Carnegie Institution for Science)H-Index: 69
Many studies have linked mass extinction events with the catastrophic effects of large-body impacts and flood-basalt eruptions, sometimes as competing explanations. We find that the ages of at least 10 out of a total of 11 documented extinction events over the last 260 Myr (12 out of 13 if we include two lesser extinction events) coincide, within errors, with the best-known ages of either a large impact crater (≥70 km diameter) or a continental flood-basalt eruption. The null hypothesis that thi...
2 CitationsSource
#1Michael R. Rampino (NYU: New York University)H-Index: 38
#2Yoram Eshet (Open University of Israel)H-Index: 9
Abstract The latest Permian extinction (252 Myr ago) was the most severe in the geologic record. On land, widespread Late Permian gymnosperm/seed-fern dominated forests appear to have suffered rapid and almost complete destruction, as evidenced by increased soil erosion and changes in fluvial style in deforested areas, signs of wildfires, replacement of trees by lower plants, and almost complete loss of peat-forming and fire-susceptible vegetation. Permian–Triassic boundary strata at many sites ...
7 CitationsSource
#1Michael R. Rampino (NYU: New York University)H-Index: 38
#2Sedelia Rodriguez (Barnard College)H-Index: 1
Last.Yue Cai (LDEO: Lamont–Doherty Earth Observatory)H-Index: 8
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Anomalous peaks of nickel abundance have been reported in Permian-Triassic boundary sections in China, Israel, Eastern Europe, Spitzbergen, and the Austrian Carnic Alps. New solution ICP-MS results of enhanced nickel from P-T boundary sections in Hungary, Japan, and Spiti, India suggest that the nickel anomalies at the end of the Permian were a worldwide phenomenon. We propose that the source of the nickel anomalies at the P-T boundary were Ni-rich volatiles released by the Siberian volcanism, a...
5 CitationsSource
#1Michael R. Rampino (NYU: New York University)H-Index: 38
#2Maximiliano C. L. Rocca (The Planetary Society)H-Index: 3
Last.Jaime. L. Baez PresserH-Index: 2
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2 CitationsSource
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