Andrew W. Torrance
University of Kansas
38Publications
4H-index
128Citations
Publications 38
Newest
Published on Sep 1, 2017in Hastings Center Report 1.47
Andrew W. Torrance4
Estimated H-index: 4
Source Cite
Published on Apr 20, 2016
Andrew W. Torrance4
Estimated H-index: 4
1 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 1, 2014in Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal
Andrew W. Torrance4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Kansas),
Linda J. Kahl3
Estimated H-index: 3
(BioBricks Foundation)
In aspiring to become a true engineering discipline for the biological sciences, the field of synthetic biology has a unique opportunity to create and encourage the widespread adoption of standards to enhance innovation and social impact in the field. This article presents a study of the standards setting efforts by the institutions, firms, governments, and individuals within the field of synthetic biology.Numerous standards have been proposed in synthetic biology, including those relevant to st...
7 Citations
Published on Sep 1, 2013in Hastings Center Report 1.47
Andrew W. Torrance4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Kansas)
On June 13, 2013, the Supreme Court placed its imprimatur on a principle that has been gathering force within patent law for several decades: human beings constitute unpatentable subject matter. In Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, Inc., the court answered the question it had posed itself — “Are human genes patentable?” — decisively in the negative. Synthetic DNA sequences, designed by humans, were excluded from this prohibition, but the invalidation of patents claiming hum...
2 Citations Source Cite
Published on Oct 9, 2013in Michigan state law review
Andrew W. Torrance4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Kansas)
Individual citizens have been found to be a major source of new product and service innovations of value both to themselves and to the economy at large. These citizen innovators operate in a little understood legal environment that we call the innovation wetlands. We show via a review of fundamental rights guaranteed in the U.S. Constitution and elsewhere that individuals in the United States participating in the innovation wetlands possess strong legal protections with respect to both their fre...
3 Citations Source Cite
Published on Jan 24, 2012in Yale Journal of Law and Technology
Andrew W. Torrance4
Estimated H-index: 4
,
Bill Tomlinson17
Estimated H-index: 17
In their seminal 1972 article, "Property Rules, Liability Rules, and Inalienability: One View of the Cathedral," Guido Calabresi and A. Douglas Melamed proposed an analytic framework for comparing entitlements protected by property rules and liability rules. Their article has become one of the cornerstones of modern legal scholarship, and the influence of the theory of legal rules they established has extended far beyond tort and property into almost every area of the law, including intellectual...
3 Citations
Published on Jan 1, 2012in Journal of Intellectual Property Law
Andrew W. Torrance4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Kansas)
Courts are rarely asked to judge beauty. Such a subjective practice would normally be anathema to the ideal of objective legal standards. However, one area of federal law has a long tradition of explicitly requiring courts to make aesthetic decisions: the law of design. New designs may be protected as design patents, but only if they are “ornamental” in nature. As the U.S. Supreme Court has noted, “a design must present an aesthetically pleasing appearance. . . .” This study uses empirical and e...
1 Citations
Published on May 5, 2012 in Human Factors in Computing Systems
Bill Tomlinson17
Estimated H-index: 17
(University of California, Irvine),
Joel Ross7
Estimated H-index: 7
(University of California, Irvine)
+ 27 AuthorsBirgit Penzenstadler15
Estimated H-index: 15
(Technische Universität München)
Wiki-like or crowdsourcing models of collaboration can provide a number of benefits to academic work. These techniques may engage expertise from different disciplines, and potentially increase productivity. This paper presents a model of massively distributed collaborative authorship of academic papers. This model, developed by a collective of thirty authors, identifies key tools and techniques that would be necessary or useful to the writing process. The process of collaboratively writing this ...
23 Citations Source Cite
Andrew W. Torrance4
Estimated H-index: 4
Since the existence of a discrete unit of heredity was first proposed by Gregor Mendel, scientific concepts of the “gene” have undergone rapid evolution. Beyond obvious epistemic and operational importance to the scientific community, changing gene concepts have exerted strong effects on institutions such as medicine, the biotechnology industry, politics, and the law. A particularly rich example of this is the interplay between gene concepts and patent law. Over the last century, biology has ela...
4 Citations
Andrew W. Torrance4
Estimated H-index: 4
(University of Kansas)
In his Nobel Prize acceptance speech more than half a century ago, Edward L. Tatum suggested an ambitious new goal for biology: "not only to avoid structural and metabolic errors in the developing organism, but also to produce better organisms." Synthetic biology aims to effect such a paradigm shift in the biological sciences by marrying approaches from engineering and computer science to an expanding array of standardized biological parts and sophisticated biological methods. By importing engin...
9 Citations
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