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Mansoor Niaz
Universidad de Oriente
143Publications
31H-index
2,702Citations
Publications 143
Newest
Published on Jan 1, 2018
Mansoor Niaz31
Estimated H-index: 31
(UDO: Universidad de Oriente)
The traditional conception of science and science education considers that objectivity of scientific statements is ensured as these are based on experimental facts. History of science, however, shows that this inductivist stance is at best a fantasy. Objectivity consists in the willingness to abandon a set of preferences when faced with contrary evidence. Although objectivity is not synonymous with truth or certainty, it is often used as a synonym for scientific. The notion of an absolute scient...
Published on Jan 1, 2018
Mansoor Niaz31
Estimated H-index: 31
(UDO: Universidad de Oriente)
The theoretical framework of studies reported in this book is based on an examination of the evolving forms of scientific judgment (including objectivity) in the history of science as suggested by Daston and Galison (2007). Scientists who followed truth-to-nature were looking for the idea in the observation and not the raw observation itself. For example, the procedures for describing, depicting, and classifying plants were openly selective. Later, mechanical objectivity considered such drawings...
Published on Jan 1, 2018
Mansoor Niaz31
Estimated H-index: 31
(UDO: Universidad de Oriente)
This chapter is based on the evaluation of research in two reference works: (a) International Handbook of Research in History, Philosophy and Science Teaching (HPST); and (b) Encyclopedia of Science Education (ESE). Based on a website search with the key word “objectivity,” 8 articles in the HPST and 12 articles in ESE referred to some form of objectivity and were classified according to the following criteria: Levels I–V (same as presented in Chap. 3). Results obtained showed the following dist...
Published on Jan 1, 2018
Mansoor Niaz31
Estimated H-index: 31
(UDO: Universidad de Oriente)
Based on a website search with the keyword “objectivity,” 110 articles in the 24-year period (1992–2015) referred to some form of objectivity and were classified according to the following criteria: Levels I–V (same as presented in Chap. 3). Results obtained showed the following distribution of the 110 articles evaluated: Level I = 4, Level II = 33, Level III = 68, Level IV = 5, and Level V = none. Only 5% (5 out of 110) of the articles were considered to have an understanding of objectivity tha...
Published on Jan 1, 2018
Mansoor Niaz31
Estimated H-index: 31
(UDO: Universidad de Oriente)
An evaluation of research reported in this book shows the problematic nature of understanding some of the universal values associated with objectivity such as certainty, value neutral observations, facts, infallibility, and truth of scientific theories and laws. These results provide a detailed account (over a period of almost 25 years) of how the science education research community conceptualizes the difficulties involved in accepting objectivity as an unquestioned epistemic virtue of the scie...
Published on Jan 1, 2018
Mansoor Niaz31
Estimated H-index: 31
(UDO: Universidad de Oriente)
Based on a website search with the keyword “objectivity,” 131 articles in the 23 year period (1992–2014) referred to some form of objectivity and were classified according to the following criteria: Level I, traditional understanding of objectivity as found in science textbooks and positivist philosophers of science; Level II, a simple mention of objectivity as an academic/literary objective; Level III, problematic nature of objectivity is recognized, however, no mention is made of its changing/...
Published on Jan 1, 2018
Mansoor Niaz31
Estimated H-index: 31
(UDO: Universidad de Oriente)
In this chapter, I first explore the relationship between transgression and objectivity and then study the importance of Scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and Atomic force microscope (AFM) for chemical research (nanotechnology) and how these are presented in general chemistry textbooks. In order to understand scientific progress, Roald Hoffmann (2012), Nobel Laureate in chemistry, invokes the idea of “transgression of categorization” and Daston and Galison (2007) refer to it as violating the r...
Published on Jan 1, 2016
Mansoor Niaz31
Estimated H-index: 31
(UDO: Universidad de Oriente)
A historical reconstruction of the origin of the covalent bond shows that the idea of sharing electrons (covalent bond) posed considerable constraints for the scientists. When G.N. Lewis first introduced the idea of sharing electrons in 1916 based on his cubic atom, it was completely out of tune with established belief and was considered as bizarre and absurd. Pauli’s exclusion principle was the next step in understanding the covalent bond. Later in the 1930s, these ideas were developed further ...
Published on Jan 1, 2016
Mansoor Niaz31
Estimated H-index: 31
(UDO: Universidad de Oriente)
Models, theories, and laws are important in both philosophy of science and science education. However, there is a continuous discussion among philosophers of science about these concepts, and it is difficult to achieve consensus. Similarly, in science education there is a continuous debate that leads to controversies. In the face of these difficulties, some scholars have suggested that we follow “science as practiced by scientists” (Levere, Interchange, 37, 115–128; 2006). History of science, ho...
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